How do we teach in a way that hooks into a child's natural desire to learn?
Children are naturally curious. They explore, experiment, touch, ask questions, and are motivated to learn. To them it's all play, and they don't need adults praising them for their efforts.
Wondering how you can help children succeed? Consider the following characteristics of how they learn to help you teach in ways that improve their ability to make sense of new concepts.
1. Young children learn when subject areas are integrated
Offer children thematic units rich with content and they will be interested and motivated, especially if you can bring real things to touch and explore that relate to the theme.
Basic literacy and math concepts can be taught and reviewed as the theme content is shared. A "winter" theme offers many opportunities to teach the letter W, to count and record the number of mittens on snowmen constructed in an art lesson, or to create patterns for paper scarfs.
A child learning about the life cycle of a butterfly may act it out with creative movement and poetry, paint the process with a large paper and paint, illustrate and label the stages in science and literacy lessons and listen to related stories and songs. Avoid pursuing a theme if the children have lost interest. Ask yourself if you are presenting enough "real objects". New themes get everyone motivated and enthusiastic.
2. Children learn in lots of different ways
Visual learners watch closely when you demonstrate an activity and like to draw and play with shapes and puzzles. Auditory learners understand ideas and concepts because they remember information they have heard, follow spoken directions well and remember songs easily.
Although all children learn through touch, some learn best combining touch and movement (tactile/kinetic learners). Some children like structure while others learn more easily in an unstructured environment.
If you want busy, happy and on task children, give them a variety of lessons that meet the needs of different learning styles.
3. Children often do not have the vocabulary to express themselves
Inexperienced teachers sometimes misinterpret a child's unwillingness to participate as stubbornness or bad behavior when in reality, the child may lack the skills to explain himself. Use reflective listening to help children communicate why they are upset.
Sometimes children work well in groups, learning to share and develop ideas. At other times they just need to be alone with ample time to figure things out for themselves.
Do not expect perfection. Relax and have fun with your students!
4. Children progress when concepts are taught in a structured, step-by-step way
When concepts are presented in a structured step-by-step process with each step building on previous knowledge, children learn with less effort.
For example, expecting a young child to understand the concept of a food chain without previous experiences with, and vocabulary about, chains and links is assuming too much.
5. Children's abilities to observe and process information develop at varying rates
Some four-year old children have superb small motor coordination and draw and cut beautifully, but have delayed speech patterns. Other children may be verbally eloquent but be physically uncoordinated or be at a scribbling stage in drawing.
Just as children develop physically at different rates, they also progress academically, socially, emotionally, and artistically at varying speeds. Effective teaching happens when teachers remember that learning is developmental.
Offer open-ended activities to meet the developmental stages of all students. An open-ended activity involves children at a wide range of developmental levels. Children are less frustrated working at their own level and they do not have to compare their results to a set of identical worksheets.
6. Children learn best when given things, objects, and stuff to explore
When teaching young children, always use concrete materials, as children need sensory experiences when learning new ideas and concepts.
Take advantage of the many educational learning materials available to teach geometry, number sense, pattern skills, symmetry, classification and other math concepts.
Use science materials like magnets, light paddles, scales, weights, and collections of birds' nests, as well as book character toys and puppets to enhance literacy.
7. Children need instruction, practice and time to learn new skills and concepts
A child doesn't learn to ride a bike by only looking at the bike and exploring its properties, he/she also needs time to practice and guided instruction.
Practicing concepts and skills does not need to be dull and repetitive. Do not automatically think "worksheet" when you think of skills practice. There are lots of ways to practice skills using puzzles, games, diagrams, art and more.
8. Children won't learn if they are over tired, hungry, upset or worried
Be flexible and understanding with young children. Check to see if kids are hungry. It's easier to let a child eat part of her lunch early, than attempt to make a hungry child concentrate on a task.
Sometimes a child needs to be left alone and creating a small retreat space in the classroom can help students who are too overwhelmed by home or other circumstances to cope with their peers or teacher.
9. Motivated children pay attention
Young children are generally motivated to learn about everything. Unless they have often been made fun of when investigating or presenting their knowledge, they have a strong desire to find out and share information.
Reinforce thinking processes rather than praising the child. Saying "That's an interesting way you sorted your blocks. Tell me what you were thinking" rather than, "Samuel is so smart" will focus the children's attention on exploring the blocks. Making too much fuss of any one child can result in a competitive atmosphere.
10. Children learn by teaching others
When children have an opportunity to communicate their new knowledge to adults or other children it helps solidify concepts. Some children need extra time to find the correct words to explain what they are thinking so patience is necessary.
To help children share their knowledge, use descriptive words as they play or work and they will copy your vocabulary.
11. Children Need to be Active
If children have been sitting still too long, they will let you know it's time to move. Even the best, well planned, interesting lessons fail if the children need a break.
Take plenty of movement breaks, go for walks around the school, march around the classroom or jump up and down! You will have more alert and focused students.